- Astronomers and the AAO
- What do we do?
- AAO Honours/Masters Scholarships
- Honours/Masters projects
- AAO PhD Scholarship - Deadline 15 March
- PhD projects
- Contact Us
While the AAO's primary role is the provision of world-class facilities for optical/infrared astronomy, the broad range of experience of AAO astronomers allows many opportunities for exciting and varied student research projects. These can be at either PhD or Honours/Masters level.
As the AAO is not a degree-awarding body, these projects will be carried out under the co-supervision of an AAO astronomer and a University supervisor. Therefore in order to embark on one of these projects you are required to be accepted into a higher degree program at a university.
Usually the joint nature of the project will require students to spend some fraction of their time at the AAO's headquarters in North Ryde, a suburb 25 km north-west of the centre of Sydney, where they will have access to the office and computing facilities of the AAO. For students based outside Sydney temporary accommodation can be arranged.
The first step in considering a graduate level research project at the AAO is to look through the information on potential supervisors and projects on these pages. Selecting a PhD, Masters or Honours supervisor and project will be one of the most critical decisions you will make in starting a research project - both student and advisor will be looking for someone they can work closely with, and who is well matched to the project. Talking to several prospective supervisors about a number of projects will greatly help you decide. So the next step after reading about the projects currently on offer will be to contact and discuss matters with both your AAO and University supervisors before coming to a decision.
The Australian Astronomical Observatory now offers a $5000 scholarship for Honours or Masters students enrolled at any Australian university, for a research project substantially co-supervised with an AAO staff-member. You can apply using this application form in Word format or this application form in pdf format. The deadline for applications is 1 March. Any questions about the AAO Honours/Masters Scholarships or the application process can be directed to the Head of AAT Science at the AAO, Andrew Hopkins (ahopkins -@- aao.gov.au).
In addition, we also support jointly-funded Honours scholarships with Monash University (for details contact Heath Jones, heath.jones -@- monash.edu) and jointly-funded Masters scholarships with Macquarie University (for details contact Quentin Parker, qap -@- aao.gov.au). Students wishing to apply for these scholarships should use the relevant application form from the host university, and follow the instructions on their web pages.
The Australian Astronomical Observatory manages a scheme of
top-up scholarships for students at Australian universities who are
substantially co-supervised by an AAO staff member. These grants will
be $5000 per annum for 3 years, with a possible further 6-month extension. More details (including application forms) are
available on the AAO PhD Scholarship Scheme webpage. The deadline
for PhD scholarship scheme applications is 15 March.
Staff at the AAO are actively involved in astronomical research and in the development of new instruments to carry out these research projects. Much of this research concentrates on the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) or the UK Schmidt Telescope (UKST), though AAO astronomers also make frequent use of other national and international facilities, such as the Gemini Telescopes in Hawaii and Chile that Australia is a partner in. The AAO has a world-wide reputation in both optical and infrared imaging and spectroscopy. A particular strength of AAT and UKST research is large-scale surveys to identify hundreds of thousands of a certain class of objects; in particular, old stars, galaxies and quasars.
The AAO is engaged in several major ongoing surveys: the WiggleZ project is using the AAOmega instrument on AAT to determine the evolutionary properties of the mysterious Dark Energy, but measuring the clustering of several hundred thousand distant galaxies; GAMA (Galaxy And Mass Assembly) is studying galaxy structures by building a database of a quarter of a million galaxies; the Anglo-Australian Planet Search is surveying almost 300 nearby stars to search for extra-solar planets; and the RAVE survey is using the UK Schmidt Telescope to map the kinematics and chemical abundances of stars in our Galaxy. Two major surveys (now completed) that have had enormous scientific impact were the Two Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey, and the Two Degree Field QSO Redshift Survey. The first of these obtained redshifts (distances) for more than 220,000 galaxies out to a redshift of 0.3. The second survey measured redshifts for over 22,000 quasars, at redshifts up to 3. The 6dF Galaxy Survey has completed a mammoth survey of over 120000 nearby galaxies over the whole Southern sky. In addition to planets, old stars, galaxies and quasars, AAO astronomers have a wide range of other interests. These include brown dwarfs, supernovae, star formation, starburst and active galaxies, gravitational lensing and cosmology.
The AAO is also home to one of the world's most innovative and vibrant astronomical instrumentation groups - in recent years the AAO has been involved in the construction of instruments for both the AAT and UKST (SAMI, IRIS2, AAOmega, 6dF) and other telescopes (OzPoz for the FLAMES instrument on the ESO VLT; Echidna/FMOS for Subaru; as well as work for Gemini and DAzLE for VLT). Research projects involving development of new and innovative instrumentation, followed by an observational component, often produce some of the most sought-after astronomy graduates.
We are often asked "What do we do?" Contrary to popular opinion, a typical astronomer will only use telescopes a few weeks a year. Getting time to use a telescope is highly competitive. At the last estimate, there are 13,000 astronomers world-wide although only about a third of these aggressively pursue access to telescopes. AAO astronomers do not restrict themselves to the AAT or UKST. We apply for time on radio and sub-millimetre telescopes, larger optical/infrared telescopes like Gemini and the VLT, and space-borne observatories like the Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray observatory and so on.
Who are we?
The research interests of staff at the AAO are extensive. You can find
a list of the AAO astronomers and PhD students on the AAO Science page. Additional descriptions of
the research interests of several AAO staff can be found on their personal
web pages, linked from the AAO Science page,
and some recent science highlights from the AAO can be found in the AAO Annual Report,
as well as the AAO's Newsletter and Press
Honours or Masters projects are smaller in scale than PhD projects, and aim to provide senior undergraduate students with a research project they can undertake at a level of ~50% of their time over the course of their enrolment. Honours or Masters students will be expected to write a thesis for their University describing this work, and are often also able to write up results for publication in a refereed scientific journal.
Some potential Honours/Masters projects are listed below. The nature of research is that some of these projects could be extended and grow into PhD projects. Similarly members of staff may have other projects waiting in the wings. Astronomy is a subject in which developments move rapidly - so the hot topics by the time such a project starts could have changed. All projects are worked out by discussion between you and your prospective supervisor, so treat this list as a source of ideas and a starting point. If you're interested in subject areas not covered below, you are encouraged to contact relevant AAO astronomers directly. Students who are interested in projects in astronomical instrumentation should contact the AAO's Head of Instrumentation, or Jon Lawrence for Instrument Science group. Quentin Parker (AAO/Macquarie Lecturer, qap -@- ics.mq.edu.au) and Lee Spitler (AAO/Macquarie Lecturer, lee.spitler -@- mq.edu.au) can also be contacted for information on Masters Projects through Macquarie University. PhD students who undertake brief (3 month) research projects in their first year, prior to starting their main thesis project can be co-supervised by AAO astronomers in such projects, and some of the projects below may be suitable for this.
Project: New Formats for Astronomical Data and the Preparation for Big, Wide Data.Supervisor: Iraklis Konstantopoulos
The adjectives 'big' and 'wide' are increasingly being used to describe astronomical datasets. With the future of astronomy moving largely toward large surveys - 'tall' surveys of like objects, or 'wide' ones featuring collections of various sources - it is imperative that we prepare for this new way of conducting science. Among the tools we need to start exploring are new data formats, necessary to change the culture of developing and maintaining astronomy-specific software, which usually leads to the trap of tasking a very small core of astronomers to maintaining these packages. Instead, by looking outward we can begin adapting the best of the science world to astronomy.
One such application is HDF5, the Hierarchical Data Format, which has emerged the victor of the battle among hierarchical file formats. The aim of this studentship will be to assist Dr. Konstantopoulos in preparing a software package, written in Python, to facilitate the use of HDF5 files for astronomical applications. The first milestone will be a simple, but stable and robust, translator module that will convert both ways between HDF and FITS (the astronomical data transport system. The next will be to incorporate image and spectrum viewing functions, initially designed for use through a Python shell, and perhaps a more generic flavour down the track. The student would thus be immersed in the area between astronomical research and software development, commonly dubbed 'middleware', where effort is sorely needed at this juncture.
Project: Unveiling the large scale kinematics of nearby galaxies in the Dragons surveySupervisor: Caroline Foster
The projected shape of galaxies on the sky has been used to categorise and interpret the formation of galaxies since the dawn of extragalactic astronomy. Despite several decades of efforts, the classification of galaxies is still being debated, particularly with the advent of new technology able to observe the velocity dimension efficiently. This essentially allows for galaxies to be observed in 3D. For technical reasons, this kinematic classification is usually limited to the very inner parts of galaxies and could change further out. It is thus important to study the 3D outskirts of galaxies to obtain a reliable classification.
As part of the "Here be dragons" survey, we have obtained VLT/VIMOS spectra of 5 nearby galaxies out to large galactocentric radii. These data are mostly reduced and in hand. Given the success of this pilot project, we are applying for a larger survey (30 targets) on Gemini. With the current data, we hope to test the scale at which the kinematic classification holds and probe the kinematic transition beyond the usually probed effective radius. Indeed, these kinematically distinct halos (KDH, see Foster et al. 2013) have been observed in several early-type galaxies. A KDH is predicted for merger remnants, and given the fact that most galaxies are the product of multiple mergers, such a feature should be present in the majority of early-type galaxies. With this sample of varied morphological types (spirals to ellipticals), we hope to determine how widely spread KDHs are across the Hubble sequence.
This project offers the possibility of early involvement in the new Dragons survey, the use of data from world-class observatories and of a recently developed data reduction technique (Norris et al. 2008; Proctor et al. 2009) to push the galactocentric boundary. The selected student will acquire invaluable spectral and kinematical analysis skills that are easily portable to popular IFU studies. The Dragons survey is an international collaboration between scientists in Australia, Canada, Chile, USA and The Netherlands, offering a connection to further worldwide opportunities.
Project: 2D spectroscopic analysis of local dwarf star-forming galaxiesSupervisor: Angel Lopez-Sanchez and Heath Jones (Monash)
The new observational technique of 2D spectroscopy using Integrated Field Units (IFU) is providing amazing new results about the kinematics and the chemical composition of galaxies. In particular, Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (BCDGs) are excellent targets to perform such studies, because their modest sizes allow that all the galaxy can be observed in just some few pointings. During the last year we have collected some 2D spectroscopy data of a sample of BCDGs using the new WiFeS instrument available at the 2.3m ANU telescope at Siding Spring Observatory, and the preliminary results are quite promising. We are offering the opportunity of study one or two of the BCDGs for which we already have good-quality data. In particular, this project will give to the Honours student an introduction to 2D spectroscopy techniques (we expect to continue the observations using both WiFeS @ 2.3m ANU and SPIRAL @ 3.9m AAT) and to gain some expertise in the reduction and analysis of this kind of data. The aims of this project is to perform an analysis of the physical (mass, star-formation rate, extinction, electron temperature and density, excitation), chemical (ionic and total abundances of helium, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, neon, argon...) and kinematical properties of the ionized gas within these galaxies, which may be compared with the properties of the neutral gas from our own ATCA observations. Finally, the student will also learn to write up the results not only for his/her Honours Thesis but for a subsequent publication. As an example of this project, please consult the 2D spectroscopical analysis of the brightest star-forming region of the local BCDG IC10, López-Sánchez et al. (2011) and this research image.
Project: Distant Galaxy ClustersSupervisor: Chris Lidman and Lee Spitler
Up until about 10 billion years ago, galaxies in the cores of rich galaxy clusters are largely devoid of star formation. However, at slightly earlier times, star formation in these galaxies appears to be ubiquitous. Our efforts to understand what causes this rapid transformation is hampered by the lack of a representative sample of galaxy clusters at these early times that we can study. The aim of the project is to develop algorithms to discover distant galaxy clusters in 25 squares degrees of data that have been obtained with the newly commissioned Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco Telescope. At the end of the project, it will be expected that the student will publish a cluster catalogue, which will then be used to select candidates for detailed studies of individual systems in future years with the new generation of near-IR spectrographs that are now coming online. The catalogue will be an excellent resource for follow-up studies that could become part of a PhD project.
Project: The nature of the extraordinary supernova SNLS-06D4euSupervisor: Chris Lidman
With the advent of wide field patrol surveys, such as the Palomar Transit Factory and SkyMapper, we are entering an exciting era of discovering new types of transient phenomena. Hints of what might be discovered in the not too distant future are emerging from the analysis of data from much smaller surveys, such as the Supernova Legacy Survey or SNLS for short. SNLS-06D4eu is one such discovery. It is one of the most luminous and most distant supernova ever discovered. It is not clear what drives the explosion. One possibility is that it is a pulsating pair-instability supernova. Theory suggests that the progenitor of a pulsating pair-instability supernova undergoes two massive mass loss events. The supernova occurs when the mass ejected from the second event catches up to the first one. If SNLS-06D4eu is such a supernova, then there might be evidence of the first mass loss event in data that was taken up to three years before the supernova was discovered. The goal of this project is to analyse data taken before (and after) the SNLS-06D4eu was discovered and to search for evidence of additionally variability in this source.
Project: From Red Giants to Planetary NebulaeSupervisor: David Frew (MQ) and Quentin Parker (MQ/AAO)
A planetary nebula is a short-lived, glowing shroud around a dying low-mass star. It is formed when a bloated red giant star ejects its outer layers, revealing a very hot, contracting stellar core. A high velocity wind and intense ultraviolet radiation from this stellar remnant can sculpt and ionize the shed layers of gas, as the core becomes a white dwarf. However, the transition between the end of the red giant phase and the onset of nebular ionization is still poorly understood. Current images of the ejecta of stars going through this so-called pre-planetary nebula (PPN) phase are strikingly heterogeneous. This suggests there may be a range of physical mechanisms that govern the bizarre and differing morphologies of these objects, making it a highly topical area for study. In this project, the student will begin by determining new distances to a large sample of PPNs by modeling their spectral energy distributions. This is via established techniques and will use extensive published and unpublished multi-wavelength data across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. This new distance information will allow the student, for the first time, to generate a robust volume-limited sample of PPNs in order to facilitate a powerful statistical study based on a careful evaluation of the derived energy distributions and other properties such as morphology and location. The results from this important study will provide fresh insights into this intriguing astrophysical phenomenon.
Project: Celestial wheat from chaff: Identifying Planetary Nebulae contaminantsSupervisor: Quentin Parker (AAO/MQ) and David Frew (MQ)
Planetary nebulae (PN) are the mysterious glowing shrouds of dying low mass stars. PN play a major role in the ecology and evolution of our Galaxy, they are of key importance in understanding late-stage stellar evolution, have considerable power as kinematic tracers (shedding light on dark matter), are unrivalled laboratories of plasma physics and provide potent cosmological distance indicators. This significant astrophysical potential of PN is currently seriously undermined by the presence of PN mimics that contaminate earlier samples and bias any scientific analysis and interpretation. Indeed, we have recently shown that ~20% of objects accepted as nearby PN are actually ionised regions in the interstellar medium around unrelated hot white dwarf or sub-dwarf stars while we have also shown via mid infra-red and radio comparisons that 47% of known pre-MASH PN at very low Galactic latitudes are actually compact HII regions. We have tested and adopted a range of criteria to eliminate such contaminants. Only the recent on-line availability of imaging surveys and other multi-wavelength data has enabled these clear discrimination tools to be developed. In this project the student will undertake a careful multi-wavelength study of the ~1000 PN in the ESO Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae using newly developed diagnostic photometric and spectroscopic criteria and via recent availability of large-scale multi-wavelength data. The work involves spectroscopic and line ratio measurement and analysis (including determination of temperature, density and where possible crude abundances) and multi-photometric comparison across optical, infrared and radio data. The very latest data from the WISE space telescope will also be incorporated. The results will be the robust multi-wavelength identification of PN contaminants and separation into their interesting classes that will be a legacy of considerable value to the astronomical community.
Project: Focal Ratio Degradation and Loss in Fibers for new AAO instrumentationSupervisor: Mike Ireland The Australian Astronomical Observatory is a world leader in fiber-fed spectrographs for astronomy. These are the workhorses for measuring the redshift of distant galaxies, the elemental abundances of stars throughout our galaxy and form the core of the next generation of hyperspectral imaging instruments. The greatest problem with these instruments is a spreading of the range of angles due to a variety of effects in the fiber, known as focal-ratio degradation (FRD). In this project, you will build on previous work at the AAO to form a comprehensive model of FRD based on laboratory measurements, to inform decisions such as the optimal fiber type for the next generation of AAO instruments.
Project: Calibration for Compact Astronomical Spectrographs for Planet SearchSupervisor: Mike Ireland Calibration of astronomical spectrographs is a key part in achieving the meter per second Doppler velocity precision needed to detect planets around other stars. The difficulties in calibration have driven US-based planet search teams to use lossy Iodine absorption cells, and European teams to make very expensive vacuum spectrographs calibrated by complex frequency-comb lasers. In this project, you will trial and model different cost-effective methods for calibrating the single-mode spectrograph to be used for planet search at Macquarie University observatory, nearby to the AAO. These methods will include the traditional Th-Ar reference lamp, temperature-controlled glass cavities and a Fabry-Perot cavity locked to a stabilized laser. Results from this project will have the potential to drive the technology for the next generation of planet searches.
Project: The Composition of Stars in Clusters - Tracing the Chemical History of the GalaxySupervisors: John Lattanzio, Simon Campbell (Monash), Gayandhi de Silva (AAO), Brad Gibson (U Central Lancashire, UK, visiting Monash in 2012)
Most stars are born in clusters. The oldest and most populous are the globular clusters which orbit our Galaxy. Within the galaxy itself are younger, less populous "open clusters". Recent studies have shown that the stars in globular clusters show chemical element abundance patterns that are unique to the clusters. We do not know why they are not seen in the Galaxy, but only within the globular clusters. Is it possible for similar patterns to appear in open clusters? Preliminary observations suggest that they do not, and that the stars within a given open cluster all have the same abundances. But how does the composition of the open clusters as a population compare to the patterns seen in the globular clusters? Are the open clusters showing a similar chemical enrichment history or a different history? It is proposed to collect data from the literature on the abundances in various open clusters and to compare these to the patterns seen in globular clusters. Do the open clusters show the sort of enrichment history that is seen in the Galaxy overall? Or do they share some of the patterns seen in globular clusters? The project will involve understanding stellar nucleosynthesis as well as the chemical evolution of the Galaxy, and work with a computer codes that calculate these properties. This project will involve travel to the Australian Astronomical Observatory (in Sydney) to visit and work with Dr de Silva.
Project: Spectroscopy and the Composition of Stars in Globular ClustersSupervisors: John Lattanzio, Simon Campbell (Monash), Gayandhi de Silva (AAO)
Globular clusters are the oldest and most populous stellar aggregates in existence. Recent studies have shown that the stars in globular clusters show abundance patterns that are unique to the clusters. We do not know why they are not seen in the Galaxy, but only within the globular clusters. They may even be the remnants of collisions between dwarf Galaxies and our Milky Way. A fuller understanding requires us to determine the abundances of many stars in many clusters and to compare with theoretical models so we can see what stars produced the existing patterns. Project: We will source original data form the world's largest telescopes and then analyse this to determine the abundances of key species in globular cluster stars: perhaps Li, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Fe as well as the heavy elements made by neutron capture, such as Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La. Stellar models that can produce these species will be compared with the abundances we measure. This project will involve travel to the Australian Astronomical Observatory (in Sydney) to visit and work with Dr de Silva. There is also the opportunity to visit and observe with the 4m Anglo-Australian Telescope in Coonabarabran, NSW.
Project: Katabatic Weir PoolsSupervisors: Will Saunders and Jon Lawrence
The Antarctic Plateau contains the driest, coldest and clearest astronomical sites on Earth. However, the katabatic winds flowing down off the Plateau create a turbulent surface boundary layer, tens of metres thick, within which the seeing is degraded. Various terraforming methods have been proposed to modify this boundary layer, including the creation of a 'weir pool' where the flow is temporarily deepened and slowed as it flows around the telescope. Such weir pools occur naturally, and are associated with the coldest temperatures ever recorded on Earth. A series of models will be devised and tested, to find suitable geometries. The project requires a strongly motivated student with some existing knowledge of FEA (Finite Element Analysis) or CFD (computational fluid dynamics) modelling.
Project: Starbugs Robotic Fibre Positioners - Characterization and OptimizationSupervisors: James Gilbert (Engineer), Michael Goodwin (Instrument Scientist)
The AAO is a world leader in multi-object fibre spectroscopy, which uses optical fibres to observe hundreds of objects in the sky at once. When an astronomer wants to observe a new set of objects, these fibres must be repositioned within the telescope's field of view - a task typically performed by a 'pick-and-place' robotic arm. The problem with pick-and-place fibre positioning is that it takes a long time to reconfigure what can be hundreds of individual fibres. The process can also be cumbersome due to the way in which delicate fibres have to pass over one another.
Starbugs are miniature 'walking' robots that are being developed at the AAO to enable fast and accurate parallel positioning of optical fibres. This is achieved by giving each fibre its own robotic 'legs' made from piezoelectric actuators; it means that instead of a field reconfiguration taking up to an hour to complete, it can be achieved in just a few minutes. Starbugs present huge gains for future astronomical instrumentation.
In this project you will play a direct part in the development of Starbug technology, helping to characterise and optimise the way Starbugs move and the way they are controlled. This may include analysis and modelling of piezoelectric actuator performance, use of nanometrology devices to identify inefficiencies in the way Starbugs move, investigating better ways to drive Starbugs through waveform shaping, or looking at how changing the geometry of a Starbug affects its performance. This project would suit a science or engineering student. No prior knowledge of astronomy is required.
Project: Starbugs Robotic Fibre Positioners - Routing Algorithms and SimulationsSupervisors: Michael Goodwin (Instrument Scientist), James Gilbert (Engineer)
Starbugs fibre positioning technology is one of the R&D projects here at the AAO and a key technology for the MANIFEST (many instrument fibre system) concept for the Giant Magellan Telescope for 2020. The Starbugs technology for MANIFEST involves miniature piezoelectric robotic devices that simultaneously 'walk' underneath a thin glass field plate to position optical fibre(s) at precise positions. The optical fibres then 'catch' the star light of the telescope to feed astronomical spectrographs. The optical fibres can be placed in parallel with Starbugs to significantly reduce the configuration time to several minutes. Starbugs technology enables the Giant Magellan Telescope to be the most powerful Extremely Large Telescope for survey astronomy. The AAO has successfully demonstrated Starbugs technology in the laboratory as part of the MANIFEST feasibility study, which can be seen in this movie.
In this project you will assist in the development of routing algorithms and simulations to optimize the field configuration. This involves the development of Matlab model to explore the optimal field configuration algorithms and performance for an arbitrary sized field plate and number of Starbugs for the MANIFEST instrument concept. The model can use pre-measured laboratory data that characterizes the performance of the current vacuum 'lift-and-step' Starbugs. The model should explore algorithms to prevent fibre entanglement and other criteria specified by the MANIFEST instrument concept documentation. The model can be functionally tested with actual hardware using the Starbugs test-rig. This project requires no prior knowledge of astronomy.
PhD projects are programs which target significant new bodies of research over a 3-4 year timescale. As an astronomy PhD student you will be involved in developing (with your supervisors) a program of research designed to attack some set of key questions. You will have to write observing proposals, take data, analyse it and prepare it for publication, as well as writing up your results in thesis form. The AAO can offer co-supervision of students in PhD projects together with a University-based supervisor at your home institution.
The following are a few potential projects for PhD students. Astronomy is a subject in which developments move rapidly - so the hot topics by the time a project starts could have changed. All projects are worked out by discussion between you and your prospective supervisor, so treat this list as a source of ideas and a starting point. Members of staff may have other projects waiting in the wings. Students who are interested in subject areas not covered below are encouraged to contact relevant AAO astronomers directly. Students who are interested in projects in astronomical instrumentation should contact Andrew Sheinis, the AAO's Head of Instrumentation.
Project: SAMI Galaxy Survey: Gas Flows in Interacting Galaxy Pairs.Supervisor: Iraklis Konstantopoulos
Galaxy-galaxy interactions drive the evolution of the systems involved via the redistribution of stellar and gaseous material, and the ignition of star formation and AGN. The ubiquity of the process makes it available for study in any environment, however, interactions between single, isolated pairs minimises the degrees of freedom in what is a very complex experimental arrangement. The industry standard for an interaction-triggered starburst is M82. Some 250 Myr after its encounter with its heavier neighbour, M81, it has experienced a sweeping, inward gas flow facilitated by a bar, followed by a full starburst cycle across its disk. The nuclear burst is ongoing and fuelling a super-galactic wind. The question is whether M82 - a very well-studied system in all respects and wavelengths - provides a good benchmark for post-interaction behaviour.
The SAMI Galaxy Survey will cover some 100 pairs, more than enough to study gas flows and stellar migrations, while also providing a control sample in the form of wide-orbit (non-interacting) pairs. Many studies can be performed on this currently growing sample, first among which will be to trace irregular gas motions and therefore map the amplitude outcome of the tidal disturbance. The student will fit rotating disk models to these galaxies and carefully study the residual maps, through which all this migration, inward funnelling and outward expulsion of gas will be revealed.
Project: SAMI Galaxy Survey: Deriving a Metric of Star Formation Morphology.Supervisor: Iraklis Konstantopoulos
The spatial distribution of star formation about a galaxy can be very telling of the mechanisms that are presently driving its evolution. Past studies have been limited to either UV/optical data, and therefore limited by extinction, or longer wavelengths, in turn limited by poor spatial sampling. In order to advance past simple morphological classifications of galaxies, we are starting to use spatially resolved spectroscopy from the SAMI Galaxy Survey to derive a set of metrics that provide a first-order characterisation of galaxy structure in two dimensions.
There is room for either distinct Master's projects here, or a large volume of Doctoral work. The first study will make use of Halpha and Hbeta line maps of a large subset of all SAMI to derive a dust-corrected mapping of star formation. The primary objective will be to develop and train a code that will be able to read in a cube and provide a rough characterisation of the state of star formation - e.g. "spiral structure", "spiral structure w/ bar", "centrally concentrated SF", "Irregular/Magellanic", "negligible SF". To increase the legacy aspect of this software we will be producing open source code, which opens up the possibility for the student to become involved in and lead much stimulating software development.
Another project, but by no means the last possible, will contrast optical SF maps to already available GALEX imaging of all our sources, as well as unresolved measurements of the overall star formation rate from the mIR through the shared GAMA - WISE catalogue. Overall SFRs will be compared to Balmer decrement dust measurements for all systems involved and help us seek correlations between the UV-optical and UV-mIR discrepancies of SFR measurements. Since the Balmer decrement only probes the surface of star-forming regions, we would need direct measurements of dust in the sub-mm regime to truly understand these discrepancies. Such a project can also be pursued by a Doctoral student through proposals for Plateau de Bure and ALMA time to observe a select sample of dusty, but nearby SAMI galaxies.
Project: SAMI Galaxy Survey: Shape-Shifting Galaxies with Mismatched Morphological and Spectroscopic Types.Supervisor: Iraklis Konstantopoulos
There is an indication from multi-wavelength work on small samples of densely packed galaxy groups that a 'tight' environment can accelerate evolution by overspending gas (i.e., elevated SFRs). In some cases this manifests through a mismatch in the morphological and spectroscopic types (later spectroscopic types), as observed through their mIR SED fitting and basic morphological typing. These two properties are available through GAMA. The student would scan GAMA for such mismatched galaxies and investigate their nature by mapping their star formation and metallicity. Since in the absence of major mergers an elevated SFR would simply expend the gas, this sub-sample could be key in understanding the process of converting spiral galaxies to lenticulars. While SAMI will not cover the densest environments this methodology can be applied to the parent catalogue in its entirety to catch galaxies in the act of shedding their skin, and interpret the circumstances that led to this situation.
Project: Evolution of the most massive galaxies.Supervisor: Sarah Brough
One of the pressing, unanswered questions in astronomy is why the most massive galaxies in the Universe are not observed to have grown in mass as much in more recent times as galaxy models suggest that they should. A possible solution is that the galaxies which models predict to merge with the most massive galaxies may actually be destroyed into diffuse stellar regions from their previously bound states. This solution would also explain the origin of diffuse, stellar haloes observed around some of the most massive galaxies: Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs). BCGs are massive elliptical galaxies found at the centres of groups and clusters of galaxies. Those with diffuse stellar haloes are referred to as cD galaxies.
This project would utilise data from the multi-wavelength imaging and spectroscopic Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey to determine BCGs in the survey, creating one of the largest and certainly widest redshift range samples of BCGs. The surface brightness profiles of these galaxies would then be characterised in order to determine which BCGs have cD haloes and the relative amounts of mass in each component. Utilising the multi-wavelength data it will also be possible to determine colours for these components and therefore a picture of their origins (whether from massive evolved galaxies or those still forming stars). Comparing how the fraction of mass in the halo changes with BCG mass, group mass and time with the models available will tell us whether this is a reasonable solution to the question of how massive galaxies evolve.
Project: Supernovae and Star Formation in Luminous Infrared GalaxiesSupervisor: Stuart Ryder
Stars bigger than 8 times the mass of our Sun are doomed to end their lives in colossal explosions we experience as "supernovae". Measuring the rate at which stars explode today is the key to unlocking the star formation history of our Universe, on which so much of cosmology rests. Despite the dedicated efforts of amateur astronomers and robotic surveys, we know we are missing a substantial fraction of supernovae still.
If you wanted to increase your odds of discovering a supernova, where better to look than the so-called Luminous (or even Ultra-Luminous) Infrared Galaxies ("LIRGs") where short-lived, massive stars are being formed more rapidly than anywhere else in the Universe? The trouble is LIRGs are so dusty that even the largest telescopes can barely see into them at optical wavelengths. By observing at infrared wavelengths, we can see deeper into the LIRGs where supernovae could be hiding. Furthermore, we can use the technique of adaptive optics to overcome the blurring effects of the Earth's atmosphere, and help to reveal the supernovae and the stellar clusters in which they form.
From 2008-2010 we embarked on a campaign to find supernovae in LIRGs, using the Laser Guide Star adaptive optics system on the 8 metre Gemini North telescope, and discovered or confirmed 6 supernovae. From 2014 we are expanding the search to southern hemisphere LIRGs using the Australian-built Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager. Opportunities exist for a PhD student to play a key role in coordinating this campaign, in image analysis, and following up the supernova discoveries they make at infrared and radio wavelengths. In addition to discovering supernovae, the student will use the resulting LIRG images (the sharpest and deepest ever obtained) to work out what drives the extreme star formation in the first place.
Project: Outer kinematics and chemistry of nearby galaxiesSupervisor: Caroline Foster
The outskirts of galaxies retain signs of galaxy assembly that can last for billions of years and are otherwise invisible in the galaxy centres. Recent literature have shown that several galaxies exhibit interesting and dramatic kinematic transitions beyond the usually probed inner regions. This transition to a kinematically distinct halo (KDH) is predicted theoretically although it has only recently been confirmed observationally. How common this feature is, its possible association with stellar population transitions or as a function of Hubble types remain to be explored using a sizeable samples.
Using world-class optical telescopes in Hawaii and Chile, the "SLUGGS" (near infrared) and "Dragons" (visible) projects are obtaining large scale reconstructed kinematic and chemical abundance maps for a sizeable sample of nearby galaxies. These two surveys are highly complementary, covering different spectral wavelengths and galaxy types, thereby enabling a deeper understanding of systematics.
This project offers the possibility of early involvement in the new Dragons survey, the use of data from world-class observatories and of a recently developed data reduction technique (Norris et al. 2008; Proctor et al. 2009) to push the galactocentric boundary. The selected student will acquire invaluable spectral and kinematical analysis skills that are easily portable to popular IFU studies. The Dragons survey is an international collaboration between scientists in Australia, Canada, Chile, USA and The Netherlands, hereby offering a connection to further worldwide opportunities.
There are no hard and fast rules for establishing a joint supervision project - every case is unique. Your University, however, will have guidelines for when you must select a project, and for the approval of projects (and supervisors) by the University.
The process for establishing a joint supervision project will usually go something like this
- Talk to your prospective AAO supervisor (in fact you should talk to several).
- Talk to your prospective University supervisor, or the supervisor of the PhD or Honours program at your University.
- Establish with the supervisor of the PhD or Honours program at your University that they are prepared to allow joint supervision.
- There will now be a phase where all three of you work out how the project will work, what hoops the University will require you all to go through, and when.
In general the earlier you start making contact with supervisors before your research project would be due to actually start, the better. For example, getting the ball rolling and talking to prospective supervisors in the July-November period before an Honours project starts in February (though not essential) would be a good idea (though exact timing seems to vary from University to University, with students in some departments choosing projects as late as the first week of the academic year).
PhD programs are generally organized somewhat earlier, with the Australian Postgraduate Award deadline of October 31 being a hard limit forcing students to at least choose what University they are going to do their degree at, which may also involve getting a feel for the kind of research they'd like to do. Once you are accepted for a PhD programme, if you are co-supervised by someone at the AAO you can then apply for one of the AAO top-up scholarships (worth $5000 per year for 3 years). The deadline for these is 15 March.
Please feel free to contact us here at the AAO to discuss your interests, concerns or problems. You can either contact a prospective supervisor directly, or make contact through Andrew Hopkins (ahopkins -@- aao.gov.au), the AAO's Head of AAT Science.
Will I get paid?
Most PhD studentships are funded through the Australian Research Coucil (ARC) or through scholarships from individual Universities. The Australian Astronomical Observatory manages a scheme of top-up scholarships for students at Australian universities who are substantially co-supervised by an AAO staff member. These grants will be $5000 per annum for 3 years. More details (including an application form) are available on our AAO PhD Scholarship Scheme webpage. For visiting undergraduate students, the AAO offers stipends through our AAO Student Fellowships and the Australian Gemini Undergraduate Summer Studentships. There are also Honours scholarships available to joint AAO/Macquarie students. Access to the AAO's computer facilities, and office space at the AAO's Epping offices are provided to PhD/Honours students jointly supervised by AAO staff.Will I get better access to AAT time?
Observing time on the AAT is awarded purely on the basis of scientific merit in a process of peer review of proposals - so in short, no. Having said that, AAO staff are extremely successful in competing for and winning time on both the AAT and other telescopes, so you will receive the best possible assistance in preparing winning proposals.When should I start organising all this?
The details of arranging a research project are given in the Contact Us section.
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